Sulawesi has verso long history of human occupation

Sulawesi has verso long history of human occupation

174,000 km 2 ) sopra Wallacea, verso biogeographically distinct boule of oceanic islands situated between continental Oriente and Australia (Fig. 1). The earliest archaeological evidence is from Talepu, per Middle Pleistocene site sopra the south of the island (1). The Talepu findings comprise sopra situ stone artifacts associated with fossils of extinct terrestrial megafauna (1). Dated puro

194 to 118 thousand years (ka), these artifacts may reflect initial colonization by an as-yet unidentified archaic hominin (1). It is not yet certain when anatomically modern humans (AMH) first colonized Sulawesi. AMH appear onesto have been established sopra mainland Southeast Levante (Sunda) by 73 sicuro 63 ka (2). They were also possibly mediante Pleistocene Australia–New Guinea (Sahul) by 69 esatto 59 ka (3). There is some controversy, however, over the validity of the latter age estimates (4), which are based on recent excavations at Madjedbebe rock shelter con northern Australia (3). Mediante some models of early human settlement durante Sahul, the large Sulawesi landmass would have been the first “stop” on a series of ocean crossings through northern Wallacea preciso the western tip of New Guinea (5). If the oldest published dates for Madjedbebe (3) are affermis, then Homo sapiens may have reached Sulawesi up preciso 69 preciso 59 ka.

450-km 2 lowland “tower” karst region per the island’s southwestern peninsula (Fig. 1). Some 300 caves and shelters with parietal imagery have now been identified con this settore. Two cave art sites are also known from the Bone karsts

35 km onesto the east (Fig. 1). At least two chronologically distinct styles of rock art are evident on the basis of scientific dating and studies of superimposition. These comprise (i) an recensioni cybermen initial style phase of well-established Pleistocene antiquity (6, 7) and (ii) a later phase that postdates the arrival of Austronesian-speaking farmers and the onset of the “Neolithic” farming transition around 4 ka (9). Where per niente sequence of superimposition is evident, the former is distinguishable from the latter mediante terms of subject matter, technique, and preservation (6, 10).

Materials and methods

24 preciso 16 ka (18). Evidence for rock art production of verso broadly similar antiquity is found sopra karst areas con the adjacent island of Borneo: At Lubang Jeriji Saleh, verso high-level limestone cave in Kalimantan, U-series dating indicates a minimum age of 40 ka for per figurative painting of per Bornean banteng (Bos javanicus lowi) (19).

U-series isotope dating at Leang Tedongnge

12 mm 2 ) overlaid the red pigment associated with one of the rear feet of pig 1 on the main rock art panel (Fig. 5, Verso sicuro C). This speleothem was too small mediante size onesto remove with verso rotary tool. Hence, we used per small chisel esatto prise it from the cave wall surface. The recovered sample (LTed3) comprises multiple layers of dense and nonporous calcite. The portion of speleothem we removed from the cave wall extends from its outer surface through the pigment layer and into the underlying rock face (Fig. 5, D and Ed). After we had removed it from the cave wall, we noted that the portion of the underlying paint layer previously covered by the coralloid speleothem had che razza di away with the latter-that is, the rock art pigment was affixed to the affatto of the sampled speleothem. Per the laboratory, we micro-excavated LTed3 mediante arbitrary “spits” that extended over the entire surface of the speleothem. This produced verso series of four aliquots measuring less than 1 mm sopra thickness (Fig. 5, F onesto G). We observed the red pigment layer corresponding preciso the artwork across the entire length of the sample. The pigment layer was also clearly visible durante the rear portion of the sample that was partially covered by translucent calcite from the cave wall (Fig. 5E). Durante total, we obtained three U-series age determinations for the LTed3 speleothem (Table 1). The resultant dates yielded indistinguishable ages within uncertainties (Table 1). This suggests closed-system conditions for uranium and thorium (Materials and Methods). The results of U-series dating indicate verso minimum age of 45.5 ka for the large figurative image of a suid at Leang Tedongnge (Fig. 3 and Materials and Methods).

Share this post:

Napsat komentář

Vaše e-mailová adresa nebude zveřejněna. Vyžadované informace jsou označeny *